Fritz Glarner (1899 - 1972)
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A Swiss-American painter, Fritz Glarner was born in Zurich, but lived most of his life as an expatriate. Glarner spent most of his childhood in Italy and France and emigrated to the United States in 1936, living and working in Manhattan. Glarner is known as a leading proponent of so-called Concrete Art, a movement rooted in De Stijl and the principles of the Bauhaus. Strongly influenced by Mondrian's theories of "dynamic symmetry," Glarner introduced a diagonal into the horizontal and vertical geometric aesthetic--creating new, equally systematic principles of composition that he termed "relational painting." Glarner's color palette was limited to the primary colors, red, yellow and blue. Further, Glarner took Mondrian's black "line" and expanded it into a broad range of grays. Many of his works can be described as tondos, his signature relational principles ordered within a circle.